Impact on the economy and the market
PSE’s priority is to ensure the current and long-term operational security of the power system in Poland. The company’s tasks include maintenance and development of the transmission network, management of the Polish Power System, including network balancing, as well as cooperation with other TSOs.

Ensuring the operational security of the system significantly contributes to Poland’s economic growth, which is reflected in increased income and life qualify of Poles. Such impact of PSE on economic growth is possible owing to the company’s cooperation with numerous enterprises.

As a contributor of taxes and other levies, we have a positive impact on the local, regional and national budgets, enabling many significant projects to be financed.

Maintaining the transmission network

We are owner of a transmission network consisting of over 14,822 km of extra-high voltage lines and 107 electrical substations. The availability of our network assets largely determines the operational security of the whole system. Being aware of this, we maintain the transmission network in a state of repair and operational setup meeting the applicable requirements.
Our network infrastructure also includes a 450 kV submarine cable line of 127 km in length. The length of the entire line connecting Poland with Sweden is 254 km.
Tab. 1. Overhead (above-ground) lines
GRI EU4 Length and number of overhead power lines
2019 2018
Voltage Length (in km) converted to 1 circuit Number Voltage Length (in km) converted to 1 circuit Number
750 kV 114 km 1 750 kV 114 km 1
400 kV 7 135 km 104 400 kV 6 826 km 102
220 kV 7 573 km 175 220 kV 7 755 km 164
110 kV 75 km 32 110 kV 75 km 34
Tab. 2. Length and number of cable (underground) power transmission lines
GRI EU4 Length and number of cable power lines
2019 2018
Voltage Length (in km) converted to 1 circuit Number Voltage Length (in km) converted to 1 circuit Number
450 kV DC submarine 450 kV DC Poland-Sweden link with a total length of 254 km (of which 127 km belongs to PSE) 1 450 kV DC submarine 450 kV DC Poland-Sweden link with a total length of 254 km (of which 127 km belongs to PSE) 1
Tab. 3. Number and capacity of transformers
Transformation ratio in kV/kV Transformers in 2019 Transformers in 2018
Number (units) Capacity (MVA)) Number (units) Capacity (MVA)
750/400 installed 2 2,502 2 2,502
spare inventory - - - -
400/220 installed 32 17,290 30 16,790
spare inventory 0 0 - -
400/110 installed 53 17,108 52 16,578
spare inventory 4 986 3 736
220/110 installed 121 20,610 120 20,450
spare inventory 2 320 3 480
Total installed 208 57,510 204 56,320
spare inventory 6 1,306 6 1216
The condition of the transmission network is confirmed by a high collective transmission equipment availability factor ( DYSU ), which reached 99.77 percent in 2019, with the reference value of 99.5.
Tab. 4. Transmission equipment availability factor – DYSU
In-house indicator
Transmission equipment availability factor – DYSU (in percent)
Jan-Dec 2019
Jan-Dec 2018
Jan-Dec 2017
Jan-Dec 2016
Reference value of DYSU (internal calc.)
Category L1 transmission line availability factor [DL1] 99.93 99.97 99.77 99.64
Category L2 transmission line availability factor [DL2] 99.89 99.92 99.58 99.63
Generator outgoing line availability factor [DLB] 100.00 100.00 99.99 99.99
Transformer availability factor for Category S11 substations [DS11] 99.31 99.85 99.85 99.85
Transformer availability factor for Category S22 substations [DS22] 99.74 99.76 99.67 99.59
DYSU 99.77 99.90 99.77 99.74 ≥ 97.5
Tab. 5. Legal status of PSE's real estate on which the network assets are located
Network assets are situated on properties with the following legal status: Area (in m2)
Ownership 2,667,999
Joint ownership 4,489
Perpetual usufruct 5,379,923
Joint perpetual usufruct 4,399.5
Total 8,057,691.50
Supervision the operation and condition of the transmission network
GRI 103-2
The maintenance of network assets requires permanent supervision of the operation and condition of individual elements of the transmission network. Operation supervision services were established for the purpose within the Operations Department in 2016: the Supervision Centre (Centrum Nadzoru, CN) in Konstancin-Jeziorna and five Regional Supervision Centres (RCN) in Warsaw, Radom, Katowice, Poznań and Bydgoszcz. The Regional Supervision Centres are functionally subordinate to the Supervision Centre and are responsible for their designated areas of PSE’s network assets.
The main responsibilities of the operation supervision services include:
  • Exercising ongoing supervision of the operation and condition of network assets owned by PSE (on a 24/7 basis);
  • Ensuring the continuous controllability and observability of facilities, equipment and systems;
  • Ensuring the availability and operational security of equipment;
  • Supervision of work in progress;
  • Performing switching and control operations in accordance with the operational allocation of responsibilities between the KDM/ODM dispatch services and the CN/RCN operation supervision services;
  • The coordination by Regional Supervision Centres of operation instructions for substations and lines by performing the coordinator function pursuant to the provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Manual for work on power equipment and systems;
  • The planning and optimisation of maintenance and new build work on PSE network assets;
  • Cooperation with units of Distribution System Operators, generators and contractors.
The CN/RCN operation supervision services play a key role in the event faults or failures occur in transmission network assets during which actions are initiated and fault elimination processes are activated on the basis of signals from SCADA systems or notifications from other entities. The services monitor the condition of transmission network equipment on an ongoing basis, defining time or quantitative constraints in their operation, affecting the operational management conditions.
Actions taken by CN/RCN services in the event of failure include:
  • the analysis of causes, origin and extent of disturbance,
  • organisation of incident site protection,
  • taking the decision on the method of disturbance elimination,
  • dispatching available resources of O&M Teams (ZES) and Specialist Engineers (I-SPEC) in order to organise the elimination of disturbance,
  • supervising and coordinating disturbance elimination work.
In the event an extensive cross-zonal failure occurs (between responsibility areas of territorially competent RCNs), the individual RCNs cooperate with one another. In such a case, the Supervision Centre coordinates all activities of PSE’s operation services from different areas and subcontractors commissioned by PSE.
In the interest of ensuring operational continuity, the CN/RCN operation supervision services are prepared to provide for a potential crisis situation that necessitates leaving the regular workplace, without losing the ability to perform basic tasks, primarily to exercise continuous supervision over the operation and condition of network assets. In 2018, the process of commissioning backup CN/RCN locations was completed. Since 1 January 2019, the centres have been providing full functional redundancy for the primary centres, owing to which they significantly improve the operational continuity of CN/RCN operation supervision services.
In the network assets maintenance process, the CN/RCN operation supervision services supported by O&M Teams (ZES) and Specialist Engineers (I-SPEC), who have the requisite knowledge and skills for direct work on equipment. There are 28 PSE O&M Teams established across the country. Through their work, ZES employees ensure the security of operating as well as diagnostic and maintenance activities. The competence and specialised skills of ZES employees are maintained at a high level owing to systematic technological training. Besides, owing to the maintenance personnel development programme launched, the training provided is comprehensive and systematic.
Fig. Organisation of PSE operation supervision services

GRI 103-1
Of the 107 electrical substations owned by PSE as many as 73 are controlled and supervised remotely, which allows switching operations to be performed from KDM/ODM/CN/RCN superior centres, thus facilitating the operation of the PPS. Other substations are successively adjusted through upgrades to the remote control and supervision standard. In the substations in which the remote control and supervision function is restricted from superior centres; all operations are performed by substation or ZES personnel.
The O&M personnel work mentioned above allows the transmission network to be maintained in a proper operational condition, which enables dispatch services to fulfil their duties related to network operation management.
Cases of hazard to EHV transmission line operation caused by agricultural non-woven fabric
There are many external and environmental factors that pose a real hazard to the operation of EHV transmission lines, but what has become a growing problem in recent years is the non-woven fabric of various types used in agriculture/orchard growing. Due to the incorrect fastening to the ground and wind gusts, the fabric turns into a kite flying freely in the air, which, when coming into contact with an obstacle in the form of power line elements, effectively wraps around tower structures, isolators, current-carrying wires or earth wires. Strips of flying agricultural non-woven fabric are long enough to simultaneously catch on current-carrying wires of all phases and touch the ground. This poses an obvious risk for transmission line operation and for members of the public. The identification of such a hazard necessitates the protection of the incident site by responsible services and emergency shutdown of lines (often classified as “must-run” in terms of system operation) in order to eliminate the hazard. Non-woven fabric removal work takes at least several hours, for reasons such as the need to prepare safe work zones, the use of aerial work platforms, and because the fabric is often intricately tangled with line elements. Every unscheduled line outage for such work generates high costs and involves personnel including O&M Teams, forcing them to interrupt scheduled work. In 2019 alone, 9 unscheduled lone outages caused by agricultural non-woven fabric were reported, with the number of such cases increasing year on year.
Item EHV line route Span or position number Nearest locality Commune/Town
1 L220 kV Konin-Sochaczew 289-290 Niedzieliska Kiernozia
2 L220 kV double-circuit Kozienice-Mory, Kozienice-Piaseczno 11 Ryczywół Kozienice
3 L400 kV Kozienice-Miłosna 39 Wola Ducka Wiązowna
4 L220 kV Mory-Podolszyce 472 Ożarów Maz. Ożarów Maz.
5 L220 kV Skawina-Klikowa 11 Nowe Brzesko Nowe Brzesko
6 L400 kV Dobrzeń-Pasikurowice circuit 1 384 Smardzów Oleśnica
7 L400 kV Pasikurowice-Ostrów Wielkopolski 34-35 Siekierowice Dobroszyce
8 L400 kV Ołtarzew-Rogowiec 409 Marysinek Błonie
9 L220 kV Abramowice-Puławy 127 Abramowice Lublin
PSE inventory management
PSE inventory management for network assets is aimed to ensure that a necessary stock of equipment, devices, spare parts, subassemblies and items is kept for the correct maintenance of the company’s network assets. In addition, inventory management is to enable the collection of stock for the purposes of ongoing tasks and the maintenance of the organisation’s asset infrastructure.

Key figures


main PSE storage locations

2 each in Radom and Bydgoszcz and
1 in each of: Warsaw, Katowice and Poznań


45 warehouses

throughout the country



managing the warehouses

Coordination of work as part of the network asset inventory management is the responsibility of the Equipment and Material Reserves Operator (hereinafter: Reserves Operator). The basic task of the unit is to maintain inventory at a sufficient level in accordance with the quantity standard set by PSE’s Operations Department, specifying the minimum quantities of particular equipment types to be kept in stock in order to ensure the operational continuity of the company, e.g. in an emergency situation. In addition, inventory not subject to the quantity standard is also held in storage.
Currently, the following items are kept in storage:
  • primary circuit equipment, including circuit breakers, instrument transformers, disconnectors, surge limiters, auxiliary transformers,
  • secondary circuit equipment, including protection devices (distance, unit, earth fault, differential), power plant automatic voltage control (ARNE), transformer station automatic control (ARST), relays, transducers,
  • HVDC components: equipment dedicated to the Słupsk DC Substation,
  • line components, including EHV line supporting structures, glass and porcelain insulators, line accessories, wires, cables,
  • power transformer components, including e.g. bushings and tap changers.
The withdrawal of equipment and materials from reserve stock together with the provision of required means of transport and loading is the responsibility of the Logistics Centre which operates on a 24 hour basis. Work of the Logistics Centre is performed jointly by the Reserves Operator (during the warehouse working hours) and by Radom RCN (in afternoon and night hours, on weekends and public holidays). Quick response and efficient transport may significantly reduce the time to repair major failures in the PPS.

Key figures



Maintenance and repair
expenditure incurred in 2019:



Maintenance of grid assets



Repair projects